The brainstem is the lowest part of the brain which joins with the spinal cord, providing the major connection and communication pathway by which the upper realms of the brain send information, or transmissions, to, and receive information from the spinal cord and surrounding nerves. The brainstem consist of the medulla oblongata, midbrain, and pons. All but 2 of the 12 cranial nerves originate in the brainstem, and influences basic processes such as breathing, alertness, blood pressure, lungs and a persons heart rate.
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